Business English Grammar and Vocabulary

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    Business Grammar and Vocabulary offers training material for adults with a good intermediate or advanced knowledge of the language. It is targeted at those people who would like to extend their general grammar and vocabulary competence into a business and commercial context. If you are uncertain about your own proficiency level, you should try answering the questions in the diagnostic test. An answer sheet for the test is included and on the basis of your scores on the various sections you will quickly be able to find your strengths and weaknesses and so determine which exercises in the book are most suitable for your own particular needs.

    I make no apology for the traditional appearance of much of the material in the book. Learning a second language involves certainly much more than the acquisition of structures and vocabulary. I am nevertheless convinced that the intensive practice the business grammar and vocabulary exercises offer will prove useful and helpful, especially for young people whose aim is English communicative competence in many of the situations encountered in their everyday business lives.

    The book contains many different sorts of exercises. The Files are very useful for general reading comprehension. Together with the associated exercises they offer a quick and efficient way to improve your business English vocabulary. Gap-filling, multiple choice, sentence building, error recognition and error correction are just a few of the exercise types which ensure a varied, entertaining and productive approach to the language learning tasks. The numerous Role Plays and Case Studies in the book are intended for group work and offer the opportunity for free expression and intensive language practice in realistic business contexts.

    Business Grammar and Vocabulary is suitable for use in the classroom or as a self-study learning aid. The provision of answer sheets for the majority if the exercises will be particularly welcomed by students working without a teacher to correct their work. The order in which the exercises are presented is not based on any grading principle. It is determined by the criteria of variety and interest. This means that material can be freely selected to suit the needs of any particular individual or group.

    Language teaching has a long tradition. Exercises are passed on from one generation of teachers to the next and are subject to a never-ending process of change and improvement. As with good folk songs, they all have a source, but it is seldom possible for us to trace the exact origins. This book contains material which undoubtedly owes much to the direct or indirect influence of authors and colleagues I have worked with during my long career ... I express my sincere thanks to them all.

    Any author of a textbook on English grammar and vocabulary must inevitably at times decide which of the geographical variants of the language is going to be at the focus of his or her attention. If you have completed the Diagnostic Test, it will already have become clear that where a choice has to be made beween, for example, American and British usage, the emphasis is placed on the spelling and grammar accepted as correct by the majority of business people in the United Kingdom. The book contains several exercises which explore some of the major differences between British English and language variants in the USA and other parts of the world.

    This book was originally published by the Cornelsen/ Oxford University Press with the ISBN number 3-8109-2421-0. Publication and sales successes owed much to the excellent work of my proof-reader and publishing director ... thanks a lot Helga!

    John F. Turner

    Table of Contents

    Diagnostic Test

    1. Wordpower: Working for a living

    2. Wordpower: A business transaction

    3. Fluency: Odd man out

    4. Fluency: Make and do

    5. File: Sales and marketing 1

    6. Grammar: Present perfect and past simple

    7. Wordpower: What's my line?

    8. Reading comprehension: Franchising

    9. Communication: At the airport

    10. Grammar: Prepositions and adverbs

    11. Wordpower: The comparison game

    12. Fluency: Idioms and colloquial phrases

    13. Grammar: The passive

    14. Just for fun: Pronunciation

    15. Grammar: Sentence formation

    16. Wordpower: Abbreviations

    17. Fluency: Phrasal verbs

    18. File: Sales and marketing 2

    19. Grammar: Irregular verbs

    20. Just for fun: Brainteasers

    21. Wordpower: Production

    22. File: Work and pay 1

    23. Grammar: Question formation

    24. Wordpower: Compounds

    25. Communication: The hotel reception

    26. Reading comprehension: The black economy

    27. Grammar: Short responses

    28. Grammar: Prepositions

    29. Wordpower: Jack of all trades

    30. Grammar: Verb groups

    31. Wordpower: Words that are often confused

    32. Fluency: Idioms

    33. Grammar: Sentence formation

    34. Grammar: Conditionals

    35. File: Work and pay 2

    36. Wordpower: Buying and selling goods

    37. Grammar: The passive

    38. Communication: Small talk

    39. Wordpower: Round the world

    40. Grammar: Prepositions

    41. Grammar: Agreement and concord

    42. File: General economics

    43. Grammar: Verb forms and tenses

    44. Grammar: Tag questions

    45. Grammar: Sentence formation

    46. Wordpower: Words, words, words

    47. File: Manufacturing 1

    48. Just for fun: Brainteasers

    49. Fluency: Phrasal verbs

    50. Fluency: Let your body talk

    51. Communication: An appointment

    52. Wordpower: Synonyms

    53. Just for fun: Brainteasers

    54. File: Manufacturing 2

    55. Wordpower: Word formation

    56. Fluency: Just a minute

    57. Wordpower:Communication

    58. Reading comprehension: Acorns and oak trees

    59. File: The transport of goods

    60. Communication: Write for business

    61. Grammar: Gerunds and infinitives

    62. Communication: Eating out

    63. Grammar: Adjectives with prepositions

    64. Grammar: Word order

    65. Wordpower: Banking and finance

    66. File: Finance and accounting

    67. Grammar: Reported speech

    68. Wordpower: Words often paired

    69. Grammar: Adverbs and prepositions

    70. Reading comprehension: A financial review

    71. File: Banking and insurance

    72. Fluency: First things first

    73. Just for fun: Brainteasers

    74. Wordpower: Food and drink

    75. Wordpower: Word formation

    76. Just for fun: Brainteasers

    77. Grammar: Articles

    78. File: Methods of payment 1

    79. Grammar: Adverbs and adjectives

    80. Grammar: Conditionals

    81. Communication: A complaint

    82. File: Methods of payment 2

    83. Wordpower: A sign of the times

    84. Grammar: Articles

    85. Grammar: Reported speech with demonstratives and adverbs

    86. Grammar: Prepositions

    87. Wordpower: Terms of sale and delivery

    88. Reading comprehension: Here, there and everywhere

    89. Just for fun: What's your score?

    90. Fluency: In other words

    91. File: The recruitment and selection of personnel

    92. Grammar: Gerunds and infinitives

    93. Wordpower: A common language

    94. Grammar: Verb forms and tenses

    95. File: Business organizations

    96. Grammar: Articles

    97. Fluency: Just a minute

    98. Wordpower: Words, words, words

    99. Wordpower: Connecting words

    100. Wordpower: Terms of trade

    101. Grammar: Prepositions and adverbs

    102. Just for fun: Brainteasers

    103. Reading comprehension: An industrial revolution

    104. Case study 1: British week

    105. Case study 2: Grange Laboratories Inc.

    106. Role play: Business and social situations

    107. Case study 3: Agency agreements

    108. Case study 4: Organization structures

    1. Working for a living

    Give the best answer to each question.

    1. Many people find out about the jobs which are available in their area by reading the Appointments or Situations . . . section of the newspaper.
      Free - Vacant - Clear - Open.

    2. To apply for the job, you should write a letter to Mr Lawson, the . . . Manager.
      Personnel - Personal - Personell - Personnell

    3. Applicants for a job are usually asked to fill in an application ....
      formula - sheet - form - paper

    4. Many advertisements for jobs ask for a C.V. This is a document that in the main contains details of the applicant's ....
      character and value - qualifications and experience - car and other vehicle licences - vital statistics

    5. Are you married, single or divorced? This question refers to your . . . status.
      mental - family - sex - marital

    6. Before starting work, a new employee may be asked to sign a(n) . . . of employment.
      deal - contract - agreement - treaty

    7. An . . . is someone who is learning a trade or profession on the job and who has agreed to work for someone for a limited time, usually for a low wage, in return for being taught.
      apprentice - accountant - assistant - attendant

    8. Job prospects. This is an expression which refers to . . .
      job description leaflets - applicants for a job - people looking for jobs - chances of promotion

    9. You work on the shop floor. This probably means that you are employed in a . . . .
      manufacturing industry - service industry - retailers - department store

    10. ... are people who travel regularly by car or train from their homes in the country or suburbs to their work in a big town.
      Travellers - Trainers - Carboys - Commuters

    11. Mr Rumpole is on the dole. This means that he is . . . .
      on the company payroll - self-employed - on company expenses - unemployed

    12. Longer holidays, more pay, profit-sharing schemes etc. are all ways of encouraging employees to work harder. They are called ... .
      fringe benefits - incentives - perks - bribes

    13. Salaries without deductions are called . . . salaries.
      net - tax - gross - take-home

    14. If you give your notice then you are ... .
      working to rule - going on strike - fired - leaving the company

    15. Which of these does not refer to the time you start or stop work?
      overtime - piecework - shift-work - flextime

    16. In many countries, employees stop working for a living at the age of 65. This is known as their ....
      resignation - dismissal - pension - retirement

    17. How many words can you think of to complete the following sentence?
      In my opinion, the most important thing about a job is/are the ... .

    2. A business transaction

    a  Match words from the verb list (A) with words from the noun list (B). Notice that some of the verbs can collocate with several nouns and vice versa.

    Example: to place

    Answer: to place an order

    to place a complaint
    to submit an order
    to grant prices
    to format an account
    to settle a meeting
    to lodge a debt
    to launch a hard drive
    to remit an invoice
    to meet an agreement
    to open an offer
    to second a discount
    to boot a cheque
    to chair a computer
    to quote a delivery date
    to debit a proposal
    to negotiate a product

    b  Each of the following activities represents one stage in a business transaction. First put them in the order in which they usually occur, and then link them together. Use the passive wherever you think it is appropriate.

    Example: Stage 1 - an enquiry is received.

    dispatch - offer - order - invoice - enquiry - delivery - confirmation - acknowledgement - payment - packing - documents - production

    3. Odd man out

    a   Decide which word is different in each set and say why it is the odd man out. In some cases you may be able to think of more than one answer.

    Example: inch foot yard metre

    Answer: metre (the only metric measurement).

    1 tender estimate quotation contract
    2 guard helmet mask goggles
    3 nail screw rivet Spanner
    4 earnings income tax wages
    5 Whitsun Easter Christmas Thanksgiving
    6 quid dime nickel guinea
    7 sincerely honestly faithfully truly
    8 catalogue brochure range prospectus
    9 flextime part-time piecework shift-work
    10 PLC Ltd. Bros. Inc.
    11 sacked shot dismissed fired
    12 car truck lorry van
    13 cost insurance freight import
    14 paper clip lathe Stapler drawing pin
    15 spares ingredients parts components
    16 date rendezvous meeting appointment
    17 UK KB MB GB

    b   English spelling is notoriously difficult and in each of the following sets one word is spelt incorrectly. Can you spot the incorrect form? Sometimes there are rules which may help you. Refer to your dictionary and grammar for help.

    Example: believe recieve niece achieve

    Answer:recieve (should be receive). The rule is i before e except after c.

    1 said laid payed played
    2 fifth eighth ninth twelth
    3 slipped equiped shipped gossiped
    4 controller jeweller traveller cooller
    5 incapable insecure inposssible inflammable
    6 stopped developped planned hoped
    7 potatos photos radios heroes
    8 ceiling chief thief reciept
    9 debt foreign complain comb
    10 apply appartment approach appointment
    11 fourty fifty eighty ninety
    12 suitable payable visable valuable
    13 edible perishible legible comprehensible
    14 life wife alife knife
    15 translater spectator employer conductor
    16 length heigth depth width

    4. Make and do

    Put the correct form of make or do in the blank spaces.
    1. Our subsidiary in Nigeria . . . a substantial profit last year.

    2. At the interview, I was asked whether I had . . . a similar job before.

    3. If you . . . a mess of it again, you'll be fired.

    4. The Marketing Department are busy . . . preparations for the launch of the new product.

    5. I'll . . . a note of your suggestion, and bring it up at the next meeting.

    6. We could . . . with a new salesman for that area.

    7. What do you . . . here? I'm an IT service engineer.

    8. What do you . . . here? We produce compressors.

    9. When the machine has been repaired we'll have to work overtime to . . . up for lost time.

    10. Although his wife works full-time, she still finds time to . . . the housework.

    11. Does your company . . . much business in China?

    12. Our Maintenance Engineer will come on Tuesday and . . . the necessary adjustments to the machine.

    13. Will you . . . me a favour, please?

    14. Paula can go home as soon as she has . . . this letter.

    15. ... sure that both sides of the crate are marked fragile.

    16. Mr Twaddle used to be Chief Accountant but now he has been . . . Chairman of the Board.

    17. I can't promise anything, but I'll . . . my best.

    18. Working on an offshore oil rig is hell, but you can . . . a fortune.

    19. If you're not . . . anything this evening, I'd like to invite you for a meal.

    20. As a result of the production bottleneck they were forced to . . . a lot of changes in their delivery plans.

    21. The Chairman spoke so quietly that nobody could . . . out what he was saying.

    22. Such decisions are always . . . by the Managing Director.

    23. If you ask my secretary, she'll . . . all the arrangements for you.

    24. Some firms even provide facilities where the employees can have their hair ... .

    25. They apologized for the mistake they had ... in the invoice.

    26. What time would you like to . . . an appointment?

    27. We look forward to . . . business with you.

    28. Who . . . the computer programming in this company?

    29. His secretary asked him what he expected her to . . . with the old typewriter when the new word processing system was installed.

    30. He left work early to . . . the shopping.

    31. It . . . no difference to me whether you do it now or later.

    5. Sales and marketing 1

    a  Discounts

    Replace each of the expressions in italics by a word or phrase from the text below which has a similar meaning:

    To persuade a customer to buy goods in a competitive market, it is often necessary to offer an incentive. With this in mind, many suppliers reduce the price of their goods by granting the buyer a discount. This may be for prompt payment, in which case it is called an early settlement or cash discount. It may be for buying more than a certain amount of goods, in which case it is called a bulk purchase or quantity discount. There may also be a trade discount when the buyer and the seller are in the same business or industry. Sometimes, instead of reducing the price at the time of sale, the supplier pays some money back to a good customer at the end of a particular trading period. This is known as a loyalty rebate.

    1. She was able to convince him that her story was true.

    2. The more motivation a person has, the quicker he will learn a foreign language.

    3. Are you prepared to lower your prices?

    4. If you are willing to work overtime, we'll give you 2 days extra holiday.

    5. We expect quick payment of all the bills.

    6. The price will be lower if we buy in large quantities.

    7. The money was used to buy new office furniture.

    b  Offers

    Look at the words in the list, and then use them to complete the text. Note that there are 12 words in the list but only 10 blanks in the text.

    order -- enquiry -- cover -- subject -- discount -- submit -- invoice -- stock -- samples -- binding -- stipulate -- validity

    After receiving an . . . and checking that the goods requested are in . . . , a seller will ... an offer. Sometimes offers are made in the form of a pro forma . . . , and sometimes special forms called quotation forms are used. Catalogues, leaflets, price lists and perhaps . . . of the goods will be enclosed or sent under separate ....
    If the seller wants to restrict the . . . of his offer, he may say that it is not legally . . . or that it is subject to acceptance by a certain date.
    He may also . . . that the prices are . . . to change without notice or that the goods are offered only while stocks last.

    c  Quotations, estimates and tenders

    Complete the text. For each of the missing words you have been given the initial letter and the number of letters the word contains.

    A reply to an e _ _ _ _ _ _ which gives the customer details of prices is called a q _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  . If this document contains also details of other charges such as for transport and i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ then it is quoting the gross price.If extra charges are excluded, the price is the n _ _ price. A quotation is not always legally b _ _ _ _ _ _. The prices may be s _ _ _ _ _ _ to change and the goods may be offered subject to p _ _ _ _ sale. Only if the offer is f _ _ _ can the customer be sure that the goods will be held for a certain period of time in anticipation of his order.
    Whereas a quotation is for goods, an estimate is for a complete job of work, for example installing a machine. Tenders or b _ _ _ are estimates for larger projects such as road construction. An i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to tender is usually placed in a newspaper or specialist journal.

    d  Trade fairs and exhibitions

    The sentences need words or phrases from the text below to complete them.

    Trade fairs and exhibitions are an opportunity for producers to display their new products to potential customers and to the general public. Leaflets, free samples and discussions with representatives on the stands offer an insight into market trends and new developments.
    If a manufacturer decides to take part in a fair, he usually has to apply for floor space well in advance. If his product is very large, he will probably apply for an outside site.
    Trade fairs cost a lot of money and in order to reduce expenses many exhibitors have their stands or booths specially designed so that they can be put up and dismantled very quickly and moved from one exhibition site to another.

    1. The new model is on ... in the showroom.

    2. Wasn't there a ... in the envelope with instructions for using the machine?

    3. There isn't enough . . . here for another desk.

    4. The supplier was very cautious and insisted that his customers paid the invoices in . . . .

    5. She read the advertisement and decided to . . . for the job.

    6. Transport costs would have been lower if we had . . . the machine and packed it in a smaller container.

    e  Advertising

    Find words or phrases in the text below to fit the descriptions and definitions.

    Many consumers believe that most goods could he sold at more reasonable prices if manufacturers wasted less money on advertising. In America approximately two per cent of the gross national product is spent on advertising and worldwide expenditure is now in excess of $250 billion a year.
    Whereas some large firms have their own advertising departments, smaller firms usually let advertising agencies plan and execute their campaigns.
    The choice of advertising medium depends on the market for the product. For specialist items, trade journals can be used. For mass produced consumer goods the mass media of television, radio and the press offer most economical approach to the largest possible number of people.

    1. Used wrongly or uneconomically: . .

    2. The whole; the total: . . 

    3. Almost but not exactly: . . 

    4. A section or division of a business: . .

    5. To carry out; to perform: . .

    6. A group of actions or operations to get a particular result: . .

    7. Newspapers, television and radio: . .

    8. Made in very large quantities: . .

    f  Commercial correspondence: An enquiry
    Complete the text. For each of the missing words you have been given the initial letter and the number of letters the word contains.

    Dear Sirs,
    We visited your s _ _ _ _ at the trade fair, and were very
    i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ by the performance of your new ebook reader.
    As we are sure that there is a substantial d _ _ _ _ _ for this sort of
    d _ _ _ _ _ in this a _ _ _ , we would be very g _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to receive your
    q _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ for the delivery of 50 units.
    Please i _ _ _ _ _ _ in your quotation details of packing, shipping costs and
    probable d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ dates.
    We look f _ _ _ _ _ _ to h _ _ _ _ _ _ from you soon. Yours s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ,
    David P. Talbot

    g  Sales outlets: Mail order and online retailing

    Look at the words in the list, and then use them to complete the text. Note that there are 12 words in the list but only 10 blanks in the text.

    spare -- commission -- catalogue -- own -- facilities -- employ -- back -- provision -- premises -- rent -- dispatched -- purchase

    In the mail order and online retailing businesses, the customer orders either from a . . . or in answer to an advertisement in a newspaper, a magazine or an internet website. The majority of the firms who sell in this way do not . . . shops and thus do not have to . . . shop assistants or to . . . expensive ... in the city centres.
    If catalogues are used they are either available online or are sent directly to the customers by post or via agents located throughout the country. Many of these agents are housewives, who work in their . . . time. They get . . . on the sales they make.
    Although most firms offer express delivery, one of the disadvantages of mail order and online shopping is that they are slower than direct buying. The customer has to wait until the goods are packed and ... . Most mail order companies and e-commerce firms offer a money . . . guarantee if the customer is not satisfied with the goods, and credit . . . to enable customers to buy things they might otherwise never be able to afford.

    6 Present perfect and past simple

    Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or past simple tense. Be careful with the word order if there is a question, a negative or if there is an adverb in the sentence.

    Example: Mr Pound is the Personnel Manager. He (be) with the company since he (leave) university about 20 years ago.

    Answer:    Mr Pound is the Personnel Manager. He has been with the company since he left university about 20 years ago.

    1. Someone (ring) up half an hour ago and (say) there was a virus in the computer data bank. We (check) it but we (not find) anything yet. This is the third alarm we (have) this week.

    2. William Chong (be) our agent in Singapore until the end of last year. After we (terminate) his contract, we (open) our own sales office there, and we (sell) our products without a middleman ever since.

    3. Unfortunately, you (not pay) yet for the goods that we (deliver) last month. If you (settle) the invoice in the meantime, please ignore this reminder.

    4. Joan: Your English is excellent. I don't think anyone could tell that you are a foreigner. You (be) here for a long time, haven't you?

    5. Pauline: Yes, I (be) here for over three years.

    6. Harry Smith (work) as our Production Manager for 25 years. Then he (retire) and (go) to live in Spain. We are finding it very difficult to replace him although more than 15 people (already apply) for the job.

    7. The machine we (deliver) two weeks ago (break down) once again. Our Service Engineer (still not repair) it and the customer is threatening to sue us for all the production he (lose).

    8. Trevor: You ever (try) to give up smoking, Bob?

    9. Robert: Yes, I (try) last year, but then I (find) that I was getting too fat. I (just complete) an acupuncture session, and I hope that I'll be able to give it up again now.

    10. I don't know what's wrong with the computer at our Newark branch. I (try) to log in to it all morning with no success. They're probably servicing the equipment although I (tell) them again and again to do it outside normal office hours.

    11. Pat: Why is Mike not in his office?

    12. Graham: I'm not sure, but I think he (have) a car accident.

    13. Pat: When you (see) him last?

    14. Graham: I (not see) him all week.

    15. I (know) him for many years and can recommend him without hesitation. He is one of the most reliable workers we (ever have).

    16. Sarah: What's the matter, Alan?

    17. Alan: I think I (forget) the password for the computer.

    18. Although we (work) on the problem for two days now, we are no nearer to finding a solution. It (prove) to be much more difficult than we (expect).

    19. Sam: The clock is slow.

    20. Jane: It isn't slow, it (stop) again.

    21. We must economize next month. We (spend) far too much money on paper since we (install) the new word processing equipment.

    22. Please check this translation for me and tell me whether I (make) any mistakes.

    23. They (pay) the last invoice promptly, which is why I am so surprised that they (not pay) this one yet. Perhaps there (be) a mistake in their accounts department.

    24. When he (arrive) at his posting in Taiwan he (start) learning Chinese. I wonder whether he (finish) the course yet.

    25. Peter: Why are you smiling?

    26. Paul: The boss (just tell) me that I (be) promoted, and that's the best news I (have) for weeks.

    27. Production methods (change) dramatically in the past 20 years and most of these changes (be) opposed at first by the trade unions. Recently, however, there (be) a marked change of attitude.

    28. There's nobody in the office. Ms Kinnock (go) out ten minutes ago and her secretary just (leave).

    7 What's my line

    What do we call the people who are involved in or with the following subjects, activities and materials?

    Example: An expert in the field of economics.(e. . .)
    Answer: economist

    This person:

    1. fits and repairs water pipes. (p. . .)

    2. makes the inside woodwork of buildings. (j. . .)

    3. pays rent for the use of land or buildings. (t. . .)

    4. puts together and repairs machines. (f. . .)

    5. gives expert advice to a business. (c. . .)

    6. draws plans for machinery. (d. . .)

    7. collects rent for the use of land or buildings. (1. . .)

    8. receives and pays out money in a bank. (c. . .)

    9. installs and repairs electrical equipment. (e. . .)

    10. keeps and examines business accounts. (a. . .)

    8 Franchising

    1. Whether you are looking for someone to repair your car's windscreen, to clean your office or to unblock your drains, the chances are that it will be a franchisee who offers the service you require - and if you want to pop out for a snack in the High Street while the job is being done, you are more than likely to find yourself a customer at a franchised fast-food outlet.
    2. A franchise is simply a licence which gives a local businessman the go-ahead to sell the goods of a large parent company, and to use its trade name. It may also give him the right to manufacture and distribute the goods in a certain area. In return for the franchise, the operator (franchisee) usually hands over a lump sum and agrees to pay royalties which are normally based on a percentage of his or her future sales.
    3. This type of business originated in the USA, where currently about one-third of all retail sales and approximately 3% of the gross domestic product (GDP) are through franchised outlets.
    4. Nowadays, franchising is a mature growth industry in many other countries, too. China produces and bottles Coca Cola under a franchise agreement with the American Company, and whether in Munich, Manchester or Tokyo, you won't have to look far to find the ubiquitous McDonald's hamburgers. In the United Kingdom alone franchise sales in excess of £2 billion are forecast for the near future and, thanks to franchises, already more than 60,000 people have been offered an alternative to being on the dole.
    5. What then are the advantages and disadvantages of franchising? For the entrepreneur who wants to work for himself but is afraid of accepting all the risks of going it alone, a franchise offers the chance of setting up a business with a minimum of experience and capital. Many franchisors supply an operating manual which explains every aspect of how the business is to be run. They offer training courses for staff and there are instructions about the design of premises, which suppliers to buy from, what prices to charge and even about the number and dress of the employees. Moreover, the product is usually a household name backed up by a nationwide advertising campaign.
    6. For the franchisor, the advantages are self-evident. He is able to expand his business with a minimum of additional investment, and he knows that the people selling his products will be highly motivated because they are working for their own profits. In general then franchising may be viewed as a safe way into business. However, there are still risks involved. In the past, a number of blue chip franchisors, for example the Atlanta Bread Company or the Blockbuster video rental franchise in the USA, have collapsed and franchising is still not completely free of the associations with the pyramid selling techniques which were part and parcel of its early development.

    1. Can you say what the following words refer to?

    a  It (paragraph 2);  b  him (paragraph 2); c  They (paragraph 5);  d  He (paragraph 6); e  its (paragraph 6)

    2. Replace each of the phrases or words in italics with an expression from the text which has a similar meaning.

    a  Let us know if you need any further information. (paragraph 1)
    b   Has he given him permission to start?(paragraph 2)
    c  Nobody knows what will happen when he gives control of the company to his son. (paragraph 2).
    d  Our turnover this year should be more than £50 million. (paragraph 4).
    e   Have you found the handbook yet? (paragraph 5)
    f   The product that they sell is very well known. (paragraph 5)

    3. Use the context to choose the best meaning:

    1  to pop out (paragraph1) 
       a  to leave for a short time
       b  to visit unexpectedly
       c  to happen unexpectedly

    2  a lump sum (paragraph 2)  
       a  a lot of money
       b  cash
       c  one payment

    3  royalties (paragraph 2)   
       a  people in the royal family
       b  a share of the profits
       c  things which belong to the king or queen

    4  retail sales (paragraph 3)    
      a   sales to be passed on to other people
      b   sales to a customer for his own use
      c   sales of fast food

    5 on the dole (paragraph 4) 
       a  working for other people
       b self-employed
       c unemployed

    6 premises (paragraph 5) 
       a  buildings
       b arguments
       c catalogues

    7 self-evident (paragraph 6) 
       a  convincing
       b proved
       c obvious

    4.  Mark these statements as true (T), false (F) or don't know (?). Base your answers only on the information given in the text.

    1  A franchise is for the sale but not for the manufacture of goods.

    2  Part of the franchisee's profits normally go to the franchisor.

    3  You should have a lot of experience before setting up a franchise business.

    4  There is no franchising in communist countries.

    5  Blockbuster is a major American franchising organization.

    6  Pyramid selling is part of franchising.

    9 At the airport

    You are Peter Douglas, P.A. to the Managing Director at Roxy Watches. Your boss has sent you to the airport to meet Morris Schneider, the Vice President of an important American customer. You have never met Mr Schneider before, and you are at present standing in the arrivals lounge at the airport holding a sign on which the name of your company is printed.

    Take your part in the dialogue.


    Hi! Are you waiting for me?



    That's right.



    Pleased to meet you, Peter.



    I did have when I left L.A. but there was some mix-up at the airport It's supposed to be arriving on the next plane.



    Good idea. There's a sign pointing to the bar over there.



    It wasn't too bad, but there was a lot of turbulence.



    About 11 hours.



    No. It was a direct flight from L.A..



    Yea, that's right Peter, but now you can fly non-stop.



    Better than here. The sun was shining and it was hot.



    I hope so, too.

    10 Prepositions and adverbs

    Which of these words fits in each of the 25 sentences?

    since -- for -- until -- by -- during -- ago -- yet

    1. He has been working here . . . 2004.
    2. I'll be away at the conference . . . a week.
    3. If Morris telephones . . . my absence, tell him I'll be in New York in good time for the meeting.
    4. The production of the parts should be finished . . . the end of the week.
    5. We placed the order two weeks ... .
    6. He worked as a maintenance fitter . . . 2008. Then he was promoted and became the new foreman.
    7. I'm phoning to check whether the samples have arrived ... .
    8. We've had flexitime here . . . the last two years.
    9. If we leave now, we'll be at the station . . . the time he arrives.
    10. Sales have increased rapidly . . . the end of last year.
    11. He left the company ten years . . . to emigrate to Canada.
    12. Bill has been in Paris . . . two days, and we've had no report from him . , . If we don't hear from him . . . the end of the week, he'll be in trouble.
    13. Would you like to wait here . . . he comes?
    14. I met him . . . the trade fair in Hannover.
    15. If you forget to take your key, you'll have to be back at the hotel . . . midnight, otherwise you won't be able to get in.
    16. The last person he expected to meet . . . his holidays was his boss.
    17. I asked him a couple of days . . . to confirm that delivery would be . . . the end of the month.
    18. We've been looking for the fault ... 6 a.m. and will carry on looking for it . . . midnight if necessary.
    19. The Chairman fainted . . . the meeting and had to be taken home.
    20. We must remind you that payment has been overdue . . . two weeks.
    21. Our Sales Director is in London at the moment, and will be staying there . . . next Wednesday.
    22. The invoice must be settled . . . the end of this month.
    23. Why has the new price list not been printed . . . ?
    24. We did business with them . . . ten years, and had no problems at all . . . that time.
    25. Thank you very much for the parts, which arrived two days ... .

    11 The comparison game

    You have a visitor who is very curious, but whose English is not quite up to scratch. He wants to know the difference between these pairs of words. Can you help him?





























































    12 Idioms and colloquial phrases

    Here are some idioms and colloquial phrases with one word missing from each. Three alternatives are given for each sentence. Can you say which word is the correct one, and what the sentence means?

    Example: I'll pay now and we'll . . . up later.
    round -- square -- pay

    Answer: The correct word is square. The sentence means that one person pays the bill, for example in a restaurant, and then the other people pay what they owe this person at a later date.

    1. We're making progress by . . . and bounds.
      jumps -- leaps -- hops

    2. That sort of thing usually happens only once in a . . . moon
      red -- white -- blue

    3. You may not think it's very important, but for me it's the thin end of the . . .
      straw -- snake -- wedge

    4. I don't want to talk . . . at this party. I'll ring you up at the office tomorrow.
      shop -- money -- business

    5. They eventually bought the site at 20 per cent below the asking . . . .
      charge -- price -- cost

    6. At first they thought he was joking, but then they realized that he really meant . . . .
      business -- serious -- work.

    7. Although it's expensive, we're convinced that it's good . . . for money.
      worth -- value -- quality

    8. The new office furniture must have cost a pretty . . . .
      dime -- dollar -- penny

    9. We'll just have to take . . . luck as regards finding hotel accommodation in London.
      chance -- good -- pot

    10. You'll be reimbursed for all your out-of- . . . expenses.
      pocket -- order-- date

    11. There were so many problems that they just couldn't see the . . . for the trees.
      forest -- clearing -- wood

    12. You're too curious. Why don't you mind your own . . . ?
      concern -- business -- matter

    13. Although he was disappointed at first, it turned out that losing the order was really a ... in disguise.
      blessing -- wonder -- miracle

    14. I'm tired of arguing with you. Let's change the . . . .
      topic -- theme -- subject

    15. At last her boss stopped beating about the . . . and told her she was fired.
      problem -- bush -- wood

    16. Everybody was more relaxed after the Chairman . . . the joke about the company's losses.
      cracked -- split -- broke

    17. The union representatives accepted most of the management's suggestions, but they drew the . . . at the mention of 200 planned redundancies.
      sword -- joker-- line

    18. I was surprised that he told his boss about it, but you know what they say - fools rush in where . . . fear to tread.
      angels -- wizards -- devils

    19. Since he lost his job, he's gone to . . . .
      bits-- pieces--fragments

    20. It is taken for . . . that all applicants for the job will have a good knowledge of written and spoken English.
      usual -- normal -- granted

    13 The passive

    a   Read through the following letter and underline the ten passive verb groups. What changes would there be in the style of the letter if these verbs were in the active form?

    Dear Mr Ashford,

    Thank you for your letter. We were glad to hear that the consignment was delivered on time, but were very sorry to learn that some of the clocks had been damaged in transit.

    On going into the matter, we find that the mistake was made in our packing department, and therefore we have arranged for replacements to be dispatched to you at once. The necessary documentation is enclosed with this letter.

    As regards the damaged clocks, we suggest that you keep them until they can be collected by our representative, who has already been informed.

    We apologize for any inconvenience which has been caused, and promise that all possible Steps have.been taken to ensure that such a mistake is not made again.

    Yours sincerely,
    Susan Taylor

    b   Change the verb groups in these sentences into the passive.

    Example: They make the fittings in Switzerland.
    Answer: The fittings are made in Switzerland.

    1. They built the factory in 1993.

    2. Somebody will tell you when to go.

    3. The applicant must sign the form.

    4. A thief has stolen my briefcase.

    5. They are decorating the office at the moment.

    6. Have they paid the invoice yet?

    7. He explained everything to me.

    8. The carrier has just delivered the goods.

    9. They employ 25 people at the new branch office.

    10. The Personnel Manager will dismiss him if he is late for work again.

    11. We are going to display our new product at the exhibition in Houston.

    12. My secretary has enclosed several complimentary tickets for the exhibition.

    13. We authorize Mr Ashford to act on behalf of the firm.

    14. I can assure you that I will arrange everything in time.

    15. People asked him a lot of questions at the end of his speech.

    14 Pronunciation

    One word in each group does not rhyme with the others. Which is it?












































































    15 Sentence formation

    Make one sentence from each of the notes below.

    Example: We / look forward / receive / your order / near future.
    Answer:    We look forward to receiving your order in the near future.

    Group 1: Enquiries

    1. We / write / behalf / principals / New Zealand / interest / import / red telephone boxes / United Kingdom.

    2. As / your firm / recommend / us / leading manufacturer / cuckoo clocks / grateful / receive / catalogue / price list.

    3. We / impress / selection / goods / display / stand / Exhibition / Manchester / last month.

    4. We / see / advertisement / latest issue / Trade Gazette / offer / satellite receivers / competitive prices.

    5. We / look forward / meet / representative / receive / samples / new range / bermuda shorts.

    Group 2: Offers

    1. You / find / enclose / illustrated catalogue / details / discounts / large Orders / regular purchases.

    2. We / sorry / goods / require / not / stock / the moment.

    3. We / pleased / inform / goods / available / delivery / receipt / order.

    4. We / look forward / hear / you / soon / be pleased / supply / any further information / require.

    5. Thank you / enquiry / l0th May / ask / information / new range / dolls.

    16 Abbreviations

    Abbreviations and initials are used extensively in many business contexts. How many of the following do you know?

    1.   R.S.V.P.

    6.   F.O B.

    11.   Inc.

    16.   asap.

    2.   C.O.D.

    7.   F.A.S.

    12.   Encl.

    17.   approx.

    3.   P.T.O.

    8.   Ext.

    13.   i.e.

    18.   Ltd.

    4.   V.A.T.

    9.   Bros.

    14.   e.g.

    19.   p.p.

    5.   C.I.F.

    10.   lbs.

    15.   rgds.

    20.   s.a.e.

    17 Phrasal verbs

    Answer these questions using the verbs indicated and adding an adverbial particle or a preposition.

    Example: What is another way of saying that business is improving? (look)
    Answer: Business is looking up.

    Example: What might you say if someone is talking too much? (shut)
    Answer: Shut up!

    1. What has happened if a machine is defective? (break)

    2. What would you say if you wanted to know where the fire started? (break)

    3. How would you ask someone where they lived as a child? (bring)

    4. How would you tell me that you don't like sport? (go)

    5. What would you do if you were engaged to a person you didn't want to marry? (break)

    6. How do we express the fact that production has been reduced? (cut)

    7. What is another way of saying that a machine breakdown is delaying delivery? (hold)

    8. How would you tell someone that a meeting has been postponed? (put)

    9. What should you do if an offer is unacceptable? (turn)

    10. What do we say if we have no more raw materials? (run)

    11. How would you tell somebody that you have started your own firm? (set)

    12. What would you say if you wanted to tell someone to wait? (hold)

    13. What might you say about food that is too old too eat? (go)

    14. If a meeting that was planned is no longer necessary, what would you do? (call)

    15. What still happens to men over eighteen years of age in some countries? (call)

    16. How would you tell someone that a certain order must be obeyed? (carry)

    17. How would you tell me that something has been abolished? (do)

    18. What would you say to invite someone to pay you a short, informal visit? (drop)

    19. What has happened to two friends who have quarrelled and now refuse to speak to each other? (fall)

    20. What might you say to a customer who thinks that there is a mistake in the invoice that you have sent him? (look)

    21. How would you tell someone to complete an application form? (fill)

    22. What do many companies do with bad debts after a certain period of time? (write)

    23. If your colleague doesn't know how to spell a word, what would you tell him to do? (look)

    24. What is another way of saying that there has been a mistake? (slip)

    25. Tell me that I can rely on you. (count)

    26. How do we tell the people at the office party that there isn't enough food for everyone? (go)

    27. Tell me that your speech at the conference was a big success. (go)

    28. How would you tell someone that you'll deal with a confusing and complicated problem? (sort)

    29. What would you say to ask someone to support you when you make a suggestion to your boss? (back)

    18 Sales and marketing 2

    A  . Hire purchase and credit sales

    Complete the text. For each of the missing words, you have been given the initial letter and the number of letters the word contains.

    The p _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of expensive goods is difficult for those people who find it hard to save the full amount in a _ _ _ _ _ _ . Hire purchase offers such people the o _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to buy goods they might otherwise never be able to afford.
    In a hire purchase a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , the buyer usually agrees to pay a d _ _ _ _ _ _ and undertakes to pay off the rest of the amount in regular weekly or monthly i _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .
    If goods are bought on H.P. they are really hired. The buyer does not l _ _ _ _ _ _ own the goods until the final payment has been made, and the goods cannot be resold without the agreement of the hire purchase company during this period.
    Many shoppers nowadays use credit cards to shop without using money. The cards are issued by banks, large stores and other institutions who charge for the s _ _ _ _ _ _ that they offer. At the end of each month, a s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is sent to the card holder who is expected to pay all or part of the outstanding sum.

    B   Market research

    Look at the words in the list, and then use them to complete the text. Note that there are 12 words in the list but only 10 blanks in the text.

    marketing -- market -- campaigns -- services -- economy -- gathers -- questionnaires -- range -- economics -- scope -- demand -- suit

    In a free market . . . , customers are always looking for better or more competitively priced products and ... . Products which . . . the market one day quickly become out of date and new ways of satisfying consumer . . . must be found. A company must frequently reassess its marketing plans to ensure that its existing . . . of products remains competitive.
    Market research . . . information on, for example, the way products are used, the effectiveness of sales . . . and the potential demand for a new product. Market research investigators use . . . , sampling methods and personal observation techniques. Some people differentiate between . . . research i.e. the investigation of the market for a product - and . . . research i.e. the investigation of the ways and means of selling a product.

    C  The distribution of consumer goods

    Replace each of the expressions in italics by a word or phrase from the text below which has a similar meaning.

    The function of distribution is to move goods from the supplier to the buyer as efficiently and economically as possible. It involves packing, inventory control, materials handling and transport and, because of the high costs incurred, it is a vital issue in marketing.
    Although the manufacturer can deal directly with the consumer, it is more usual for middlemen such as wholesalers and retailers to be employed. Wholesalers buy goods from manufacturers in very large quantities and sell them in smaller quantities to retailers. The word retail means to split up. When a consumer purchases things from a shop, the retailer has split his bulk order from the wholesaler in order to sell the single item that the customer requires.

    1. The car doesn't use much fuel. It runs very cheaply.

    2. It took more than three weeks to check the stocks.

    3. They got a lot of debts with the development costs of the new machine.

    4. It's very important that you are at the meeting in time.

    5. He said that he only trades with wholesalers.

    6. We could sell the goods at a lower price if there weren't so many people between the producer and the customer.

    7. The new machine is good, but it needs a lot of maintenance.

    D  Agents and agencies

    Find words or phrases in the text below to fit the descriptions and definitions.

    Much international trade is not handled by direct contact between buyer and seller but by agencies, usually in the country of the buyer. Although a large company may establish a sales branch in the foreign country this is not economical for most exporters, who therefore appoint agents and agencies to represent them abroad.
    There are two types of agency: a sole or exclusive agency and a non-exclusive agency. A sole agent is the only agent supplied by a particular firm in a particular area, and he usually agrees that he will not represent any of the firm's competitors.
    If an agent receives goods on a consignment basis he does not own them and must sell them on commission.
    If he receives the goods on his account he buys the goods himself, decides on the resale price and the profits from his sales then belong to him.

    1. To set up; to found: . . .

    2. A division or section of the company: . . .

    3. To employ; to engage: . . .

    4. To or in another country: . . .

    5. Not shared; the only one: . . .

    6. Somebody who tries to be better than another; a rival: ...

    7. Goods which are packed and sent together: .

    8. An amount of money paid to a representative for his services-

    E  Samples and demonstrations

    The sentences need words or phrases from the text below to complete them.

    Before placing an order, many prospective customers ask to see an example of the article they are intending to purchase. The supplier will usually send a sample or, if this is not possible, he may invite the customer to visit his showroom for a demonstration.
    Sometimes customers ask for goods on approval or on a sale or return basis if they are not sure of how well the product will sell. There is usually a time limit on when the goods must be returned or paid for.
    Many manufacturers employ representatives who call on prospective customers to discuss their requirements and to show samples of the products that their firms offer. The visit may be a cold call, which is one without prior arrangement, or it may be preceded by a telephone call, fax or e-mail to fix an appointment.

    1. They waited a long time before deciding to . . . an order.

    2. He said that he would only change the conditions with your . . . ?

    3. How can we help you if we don't know what your . . . are?

    4. The goods are offered subject to . . . sale.

    5. Could you ring the dentist and ask for an ... , please?

    F Commercial correspondence: Reply to an enquiry

    Complete the text. For each of the missing words you have been given the initial letter and the number of letters the word contains.

    Dear Ms Douglas,

    Thank you very much for your telephone e _ _ _ _ _ _ last week.

    You will find e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ a catalogue and our c _ _ _ _ _ _ price list q _ _ _ _ _ _ prices f.o.B, Liverpool.

    We would like to draw your a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to the special trade d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ we are offering to bona-fide wholesalers, and to the q _ _ _ _ _ _ _ discounts for large orders.

    Please c _ _ _ _ _ _ us if we can be of any f _ _ _ _ _ _ help to you.

    Yours s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ,
    Jane P. Nevin

    G  Sales outlets 1: Department stores and hypermarkets

    Look at the words in the list, and then use them to complete the text. Note that there are 12 words in the list but only 10 blanks in the text.

    bulk -- located -- checkout -- trolley -- facilities -- branches -- supply -- competitive -- broad -- provide -- pressure -- escalators

    The success of department stores is due to the large . . . of goods at . . . prices, and to the fact that no direct . . . is put on the customers to buy anything. As the name suggests, the shop is divided into a number of sections, each selling a particular type of merchandise. A department store also usually offers a . . . spectrum of services and . . . such as lifts, . . . toilets, car parks and cafeterias or restaurants.
    Hypermarkets are very large supermarkets which are . . . away from the town centres. The customer usually takes a basket or a . . . and buys goods by the self-service method. The goods are paid for at the . . . .
    Because they are large and often have many . . . , both department sores and hypermarkets are able to buy in . . . and thus offer goods to the shopper at very favourable prices.

    H   Sales outlets 2: Regional shopping malls and retail parks

    Look at the words in the list, and then use them to complete the text. Note that there are 12 words in the list but only 10 blanks in the text.

    wholesale -- stand-alone -- outdoors -- service -- facilities -- pedestrian -- allow -- lots -- elevators -- abundant -- favour -- chain

    Regional malls are large, weather-protected shopping centres, sometimes in a single building or sometimes in a complex of buildings connected by covered . . . walkways.They are designed to . . . the needs of customers from a large catchment area. There are always . . . of parking . . . and a broad spectrum of leisure-time and entertainment . . . like restaurants and cinemas.
    In the United Kingdom, planning authorities no longer freely . . . the construction of new regional malls. The trend is now in . . . of retail parks. These are pedestrian areas with . . . shops each with its own entrance from . . . . Typically retail parks host a range of . . . stores, including supermarkets, clothes or footwear merchandisers, electrical stores and many others.

    I   Sales outlets 3: Discussion topics

    1. The International Council of Shopping Centers classifies shopping malls in the USA into eight basic types: neighborhood center, community center, regional center, superregional center, fashion/ specialty center, power center, theme/festival center, and outlet center. What do you think are the main differences between the different types?

    2. Where do our descriptions of department stores, hypermarkets, regional shopping malls and retail parks fit in the list?

    3. What is the present situation with regard to the development of shopping malls in your country ... positive ... negative?

    19 Irregular verbs

    In this exercise common irregular verbs are needed to complete the 19 idiomatic phrases. Choose the correct verb from the box and put it into the right form for the sentence. Check your dictionary if you are not sure what the idiomatic phrases mean.

    bend -- hit -- smell -- bring -- lead -- spill -- buy -- lose -- take -- meet -- throw -- drive -- put -- win -- fly -- read -- wind -- give -- rise

    1. His announcement to the AGM of the turnover for the year . . . the house down.

    2. Do you really think that it was one of our R. and D. staff who . . . the beans?

    3. In my opinion it was the lack of a market research survey that . . . us up the garden path.

    4. The last time Martin spoke to the shop steward about overtime rates he , , , his foot in it and caused a strike.

    5. Her remark that job satisfaction and productivity were closely related really . . . the nail on the head.

    6. If I had been you, I would have . . . him a piece of my mind.

    7. At that price I have to admit that our competitors have . . . hands down.

    8. Although Norma was very busy at the time, she . . . over backwards to help us.

    9. He decided that it was time he . . . the bull by the horns and told him exactly what he thought about the plan.

    10. I am not surprised that he . . . into a temper when he heard that we had lost the order.

    11. You wouldn't have been so pleased about the offer if you had . . . between the lines.

    12. What would you have done if he had . . . his head and left the meeting?

    13. He found it very difficult to admit that he had finally . . . his match.

    14. I don't know who . . . the party, but there was a hell of a mess in the office afterwards.

    15. I'm going to ask for samples first. I remember what happened the last time we . . . a pig in a poke.

    16. According to the Chamber of Commerce, the company was . . . up two years ago.

    17. We warned him about the danger of bribery in that country, so why did it take so long before he . . . a rat?

    18. The last time we invited her she . . . to the occasion and made a magnificent speech.

    19. I enjoyed working for him, but his insistence on all reports being in triplicate . . . me round the bencl.

    20 Brainteasers

    Can you solve the following problems?

    1  Top Management

    In our firm the Production Manager, the Chief Accountant, the Managing Director and the Sales Manager have adjoining offices on the same floor. Their names (not necessarily in this order) are Mr Ashford, Mr Beaumont, Ms Perkins and Mrs Edwards.
    Ms Perkins and Mrs Edwards have new Mercedes cars. The Sales Manager has a red Porsche. Mrs Edwards and Mr Ashford often have lunch with the Chief Accountant and the Sales Manager.
    One of them has a Rolls Royce. What's his or her job?

    Just to help you - Mrs Edward's office is between the Chief Accountant's office and that of the Managing Director.

    2  The Interview

    Recently the Personnel Manager, Mr Pound, interviewed 6 applicants for an important post in the Sales Department. To test the applicants' command of English, Mr Pound decided to ask each of them for the same 5 vocabulary items.

    Here are the results of the test:

    Peter Cromwell:






    Mary Bond:






    Trevor Owens:






    Pat Hubbard:






    Alan Chambers:






    Sophie Western:






    Each of the applicants had a different number of correct answers, ranging from one person who got them all right, to one who got them all wrong. What was the name of the applicant who got all the questions right?

    21 Production

    Give the best answer to each question.

    1. Someone who is learning a trade or profession on the job is a(n). . . .
      learner - freshman - apprentice - novice

    2. A job which has to be done very quickly is often said to be a . . . job.
      rush - haste - speed - whiz

    3. The employees working in the area of the factory where the goods are manufactured are called the . . . workers.
      plant - manual - shop floor - service

    4. In the abbreviation R.P.M. the r Stands for ... .
      rounds - revolutions - rotations - rolls

    5. A small . . . is required for adjustments to the control unit.
      screwdriver - hammer - file - pliers

    6. Which of these items would not normally be available to protect machine operators?
      goggles - gloves - helmets - safety pins

    7. Work which is done in addition to the normal weekly working hours is called ... .
      double time - spare time - overtime - extra time

    8. The production is taking longer than we expected. We are two weeks behind ....
      schedule - time - play - rate

    9. The electrician took the broken part to his . . . to repair it.
      desk - table - bench - board

    10. A(n) . . . is a continuously moving structure carrying material from one part of the factory to another.
      assembly line - conveyor belt - production line - transmission belt

    11. The details of the measurements and the materials of which something is made are called the ....
      specifications - particulars - schedules - drawings

    12. The Works Manager is always talking about CAD, CAM, CIM, and CNC machines. Which of the following words do all the abbreviations have in common?
      construction - computer - contract - cash

    13. Someone whose job is to put together machines is called a(n) . . . .
      assembler - joiner - fitter - builder

    14. Which of these expressions does NOT refer to transport costs?
      carrying costs - carriage costs - delivery costs - freight costs

    15. The Service Engineer . . . the machine carefully to see why it had broken down.
      proved - controlled - investigated - checked

    16. The . . . goods are stored in the warehouse across the road.
      finished - done - ready - made

    17. The . . . is the elected representative of the shop floor workers.
      supervisor - shop steward - chargehand - foreman

    18. A . . . is a factory in which only members of a particular trade union are employed.
      blackleg - restricted area - lockout - closed shop

    19. Which of these would not generally be used to measure something?
      calipers - tape measure - slide rule - gauge

    20. The Production Manager told the fitter to go to the . . . and to ask for the spare part they needed to repair the machine.
      stocks - stores - depot - magazine

    21. The purpose of . . . production is to reduce costs and improve efficiency.
      low - lean - long - limp

    22. A very common solution to the problem of increasing domestic production costs is . . . .
      outing - outsourcing - outgoing - upcoming

    22 Work and pay 1

    Find words or phrases in the text below to fit the descriptions and definitions.

    The employees of a company may be paid once a week or once a month. If they are paid weekly, as is still the case with many unskilled and manual workers, the money they receive is called their wage. If they are paid monthly, it is called their salary.
    Self-employed people, for example lawyers, accountants or consultants are paid a fee for the services they offer.
    In the past, many workers received their wages in cash in a sealed envelope called a pay or wage packet. Nowadays, however, most employers prefer to pay wages and salaries by cheque or directly into the employees bank account. This saves work for the wages clerk, and means that the employer does not need to keep large amounts of cash on the premises.

    1. A person who works for someone else . . . .

    2. Regular weekly payments for work . . . .

    3. Regular monthly payments for work . . . .

    4. Earning a living from one's own business . . . .

    5. A specialist in money management . . . .

    6. A sum of money paid for professional help . . . .

    7. Fastened; closed . . . .

    8. To reduce work or to make work unnecessary . . . .

    9. Buildings; property . . . .

    B  Take-home pay

    Look at the words in the list, and then use them to complete the text.
    Note that there are 12 words in the list but only 10 blanks in the text.

    net - forms - employee - contributions - items - gross - employer - deductions - insurance - slip - account - salary

    Each time an . . . receives his wage or . . . , he should be given a pay . . . which tells him how his pay is made up and how the final total, the take-home pay, has been calculated.
    The most important . . . on the pay slip are as follows: First is the employee's . . . pay i.e. how much he has earned. Then come the . . . i.e. how much has been taken out of the wages for tax, national . . . and pension . . . . Finally comes the . . . pay. This is the amount that the employee can take home or the amount that will be paid into his bank . . . .

    C  Incentive schemes

    Complete the text. For each of the missing words you have been given the initial letter and the number of letters the word contains.

    Incentive schemes are plans or systems which offer employees more in the hope that they will p _ _ _ _ _ _ more and work more efficiently. Merit awards, bonuses and p _ _ _ _ _ sharing schemes are typical m _ _ _ _ _ _ _ incentive schemes which result in an increase in wages or salaries as job p _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ improves. Fringe b _ _ _ _ _ _ _ or perks such as free housing, company cars etc. are non-financial incentive schemes, which, in many countries, are an accepted part of the conditions of work. F _ _ _ _ _ benefits are especially popular with higher paid e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ because of the tax a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ they offer.

    D  Job satisfaction

    Replace each of the words and phrases in italics by an expression from the text below which has a similar meaning.

    Many of the jobs in industry are routine. Working on an assembly line, for example, day after day and year after year can be a very boring task. The employee performs the same movements again and again with little interest in the finished product, and perhaps with little opportunity to communicate with his fellow workers. There is scarcely any job satisfaction and the results can be high absenteeism, shoddy work and even sabotage and strikes.
    Employers have tried various methods to improve their workers' motivation. Monetary incentive schemes are offered to increase the workers' wages, and fringe benefits such as social clubs, canteen facilities and sickness and pension schemes are used to stimulate job satisfaction and loyalty to the company.

    1. You should take the job. I think it's a wonderful chance.

    2. He always gets on very well with his colleagues.

    3. I've hardly any money left.

    4. It s just another example of low quality workmanship.

    5. As an encouragement to the staff, we've introduced a profit-sharing scheme.

    6. Are there any perks with the job? I mean things like a company car or a cocktail cabinet in my office.

    7. Have you seen the things that are available in the new social club?

    E  Personnel costs and job evaluation

    Use words or phrases from the text below to complete the sentences.

    There are few employers who do not complain about the high labour costs in their companies, and there is no doubt that in many countries these costs have reached a record high. The problem is not only that of the direct costs for wages and salaries, but also of the supplementary costs for such things as holidays, Christmas bonuses and employer contributions to pension and health insurance schemes.
    As regards the direct costs, efficient job evaluation procedures are necessary for a company to develop a fair and realistic wage and salary structure.
    After the requirements of each job have been listed in a detailed job description, each of the requirements can be given a value and the values then added to give a total value for the job.
    Although it is relatively simple to measure the work done on the shopfloor, it is much more difficult to evaluate managerial and administrative work.
    The payment for a job, of course, depends on other things too - on the labour supply which is available in a particular region, and on the cost of living in the area where the employees are expected to work.

    1. If the food is so bad, why don't you . . . to the manager?

    2. Did you know that in America Trade Unions are called . . . Unions?

    3. I was absolutely sure, but he said that he still had his . . . .

    4. The money you get when you retire is called your ....

    5. Most of the blue-collar workers are employed on the ....

    6. Inflation is slowly gathering speed again, and most people are noticing a steady increase in the ....

    F  The future of work

    Look at the words in the list, and then use them to complete the text.
    Note that there are 12 words in the list but only 10 blanks in the text.

    robots - service - retail - automation - artificial - sign - doubt - collar - tasks - turn - care - tellers

    There is no . . . that the digital revolution is transforming employment opportunities both for white- and for blue- . . . workers. In the USA the number of clerical workers such as bank . . . , file clerks and typists has fallen dramatically since the . . . of the century. Online shopping and automated checkout systems are threatening the jobs of many thousands of . . . cashiers and in manufacturing, advances in robotics, . . . intelligence and 3-D printing techniques, for example, are forcing organisations to re-assess their requirements for employees doing repetitive and predictable . . . .
    Of course, new jobs are being created, especially in the fields of health . . . and management and in several . . . industries.Unfortunately salaries in the new, fast-growing occupations are frequently lower than those they are replacing - not a good . . . for the future!

    23 Question formation

    Make questions which ask about the information in italics in these sentences. Begin your answer with the word given in the brackets.

    Example: The goods were dispatched last Tuesday. (When . . . )
    Answer: When were the goods dispatched?

    1. Mr Ashford has worked here for twenty years. (How long . . . )

    2. He works in the Research and Development department. (Where . . . )

    3. Michael used to work for Ferranti. (Where . . . )

    4. They make brake linings. (What . . . )

    5. He left because be wanted to earn more money. (Why . . . )

    6. His wife is very beautiful. (What . . . )

    7. They live in Kensington. (Where . . . )

    8. No, they live in a large detached house. (Do . . . )

    9. I meet him every week at the board meetings. (How . . . )

    10. I'm a management trainee. (What . . . )

    11. About £117,000 a year. (How . . . )

    12. I studied economics and German. (What . . . )

    13. I intended to become a teacher. (Why . . . )

    14. I changed my mind because there were no jobs for teachers. (Why . . . )

    15. The Chairman's name is Sir Rodney Perkins. (What . . . )

    16. I don't know, because I've never met him. (What . . .)

    17. All the important decisions are made by Mr Edwards, the Managing Director. (Who . . . )

    18. His office is on the fifth floor. (Where . . . )

    19. Yes, but you should speak to his secretary first. (Can . . . )

    20. I think she's called Pamela Towers. (What . . . )

    21. It's over there in the corner. (Where . . . )

    22. We finish work at 5 o'clock. (When . . . )

    23. It's half past four. (What . . . )

    24. It will take you about ten minutes. (How . . . )

    25. I can't. I've got too much work to do. (Why . . . )

    26. I've got to dictate two letters. (What . . . )

    27. One of them is to Australia, and the other to Japan. (Where . . . )

    28. No, they're in English. (Are . . . )

    29. I learned it at school. (Where . . . )

    30. Yes I have, but you're not allowed to smoke here. (Have . . . )

    24 Compounds

    For each of the words in list A, there is at least one word in list B with which it is frequently paired in business English. Can you find 15 of these compounds and explain what they mean? Your dictionary will help you if you are not sure what the expressions mean.

    Example: List A: spare
    Answer: List B: parts

    Spare parts are parts of a machine which are available to replace parts already in use when they are worn or broken.

    GROUP 1

    spare premium
    filing processing
    data cheque
    fringe parts
    trade venture
    profit manual
    joint meeting
    third-party cabinet
    customs' union
    insurance margin
    crossed sheet
    board benefits
    balance cover
    instruction belt
    conveyor clearance

    GROUP 2

    after-sales decision-making
    delivery research
    petty draft
    bottom-up contractor
    insurance line
    market agent
    bonded list
    cost service
    trade cash
    lean broker
    assembly warehouse
    sole production
    price center
    think breakdown
    building tank
    fringe premium
    sight account
    work study
    profit bay

    25 The hotel reception

    You work for Roxy Watches PLC, and have just arrived at a hotel reception in London.
    Take the part of Kim Newman in the dialogue.


    Can I help you, madam?



    I'm sorry, but we've no reservation for a Ms Newman.



    That's possible, madam. What's your company called?



    I beg your pardon. I didn't catch that. Could you spell it for me, please?



    Ah yes, here's the reservation - a single room with shower for two nights. Room 47 on the fourth floor.



    I'm afraid not. We only have more expensive rooms with those facilities.



    At least £48 pounds extra.



    Of course, madam. Visa, Access and America Express are all acceptable.



    Then it's room 76 on the seventh floor.



    Round the corner and along the corridor.



    Of course, madam. Porter!

    26 The black economy

    1. We are probably all familiar with the situation. There is a repair job to be done on the house or perhaps on the car, and we know a friend or a friend of a friend who can fix it. Give him what you think it's worth - cash of course - he'll pop round after work this evening, or at the weekend if it's more convenient. The offer is tempting, and if you accept it you have already become part of the black economy.
    2. The term Black Economy refers to off-the-record business transactions; to the sale of goods and services - almost always for cash - without the tax authorities being put in the picture. It is sometimes called moonlighting.
    3. Studies measuring the size of the black economy suggest that it varies greatly from country to country. Whereas in Britain and the USA it could be worth 1-2 per cent of the Gross Domestic Product, in Italy the figure may be as high as 14 per cent.
    4. Although some people claim that black work enables many unemployed people to stay above the breadline, this argument turns a blind eye to the fact that most moonlighting is performed by those already in employment. These people work in their spare time and have no qualms about using the tools, equipment and contacts of their normal jobs.
    5. For the customer who has his car mended or his house repaired by a black worker, the risks are great. He is encouraging tax evasion at best and he may even be an accessory to an outright crime. Moreover, if he is in any way dissatisfied with the work done, he will find it difficult if not impossible to lodge any complaint against the employee who has been working on the side. It may be that what seemed like a bargain at first sight proves to be frighteningly expensive when all the costs have been taken into account.

    1   These phrases are taken from the text:

    a off-the-record (paragraph 2)
    b to put in the picture (paragraph 2)
    c above the breadline (paragraph 4)
    d to turn a blind eye (paragraph 4)
    e to have no qualms (paragraph 4)
    f on the side (paragraph 5)

    Match each of the phrases with one of the sentences below which contains the same central idea.

    1. She's got an evening job to earn a little extra money.

    2. He told us unofficially that Peter was in financial difficulties.

    3. He pretended not to see the 'No Smoking' sign.

    4. A car is a luxury if you are very poor.

    5. He was not worried at all about speaking in public.

    6. Can you tell me what happened at the meeting?

    2   Which of these statements is true? Base your answer only on the information contained in the text.

    1. In Italy black work adds 14% to the GDP?

    2. The tax man turns a blind eye to moonlighting.

    3. Moonlighting is usually a spare time activity.

    4. Most black workers use their own tools and equipment.

    3   According to the author, some people think that the black economy:

    1. Helps the unemployed.

    2. Doesn't help the unemployed.

    3. Increases sales of tools and equipment.

    4. Ignores the unemployed.

    4   Which of these is most probable if all moonlighting were stopped?

    1. The GDP would increase.

    2. Tax revenue would decrease.

    3. The GDP would decrease.

    4. Unemployment would increase.

    5   For the customer, all black work is:

    1. A bargain.

    2. Cheap.

    3. Expensive.

    4. None of these.

    27 Short responses

    Choose the correct responses.

    1. Who's just arrived? . . .
      Peter is -- Peter did -- Peter has -- Peter just

    2. Does he know the answer? I think . . .
      it -- so -- yes -- no

    3. I don't want it. Neither . . . .
      I do -- I want -- do I -- me

    4. I'd like to go home. So . . . .
      would I -- had I -- me too -- do I

    5. Are you going to England next summer? No I'm not, but my friend . . . .
      goes -- will -- is -- does

    6. I've forgotten my wallet. It doesn't . . . .
      care -- matter -- mind -- count

    7. She's coming by helicopter. What! . . . is she coming?
      Why -- Where -- How -- What

    8. Will the meeting be over by 5 o'clock? I hope . . . .
      it -- so -- that -- yes

    9. I haven't got any small change. Don't worry, I've got . . . .
      one -- some -- it -- them

    10. He may not come. And what if he . . . ?
      does -- may -- is -- will

    11. Has Graham been promoted? . . . .
      I think so -- 1 know it -- I think -- I think yes

    12. His secretary speaks English very well. . . . mine.
      So does -- So -- So is -- Also

    13. Is this Mr Harlow? Yes, . . .
      he is -- it is -- is it -- this is

    14. I wouldn't do that if I were him. . . . .
      Me too -- I neither -- Neither I would -- Neither would I

    15. He likes red wine. . . .
      Also I do -- So I do -- I also -- Me too

    16. Do you think we'd better book? Yes, I think . . . .
      we could -- we did -- we had -- we would

    17. Can you type? . . . .
      I'm afraid not -- I'm afraid no -- No, I'm afraid -- No, I don't

    18. Will she be here for lunch? . . . .
      I expect it -- I expect so -- I expect -- Yes, I expect

    19. Is payment overdue? . . . .
      I don't hope so -- I don't think -- I don't think so -- I don't hope

    20. Which of these trousers should I buy? . . . .
      Please yourself--The red one--The red--The both of them

    28 Prepositions

    Supply prepositions, if necessary, in these sentences.

    1. The machine is being assembled . . . the moment.

    2. Do you recognize our new secretary . . . this photograph?

    3. We're spending much too much money . . . stationery.

    4. J.R's office is . . . the top floor.

    5. This company specializes . . . high quality paper processing machines.

    6. There is a great demand . . . our products in China.

    7. He became Chairman of the Board . . . the age of 37.

    8. When he was dismissed, he received a cheque . . . $15,000.

    9. We apologize for the delay in replying . . . your letter.

    10. His prospects improved after he got engaged . . . the Managing Director's daughter.

    11. He was very surprised to see how the office staff behaved . . . the Christmas party.

    12. Sorry, but the parts are not . . . stock.

    13. Don't worry about the price of the meal. It's . . . expenses.

    14. He's an expert . . . programming computers.

    15. We wish to congratulate you . . . the 20th anniversary of your firm.

    16. We are writing . . . reference to your order of 12th September.

    17. The workers have been . . . strike for two weeks now.

    18. Mr Wilde is visiting the exhibition . . . behalf of our company.

    19. We advise you to take . . . an insurance policy to cover the transport of the merchandise.

    20. Please note that the goods are offered subject . . . prior sale.

    21. How many of the specified item can you deliver . . . short notice?

    22. The goods are sold . . . high prices.

    23. We produce more computer games than any other company . . . the world.

    24. Who is authorized to sign when the manager is away . . . business?

    25. Are you showing your products . . . the trade fair in Boston this year?

    29 Jack of all trades

    a   A Jack of all trades is a person who can do many different kinds of work, but who may not be good at any of them. What do we mean in English when we say that a person or thing is . . .?


    an egghead




    a conman


    a yuppie


    a grass widow




    a nosy parker


    a creep


    a high flyer


    a clock watcher


    a butter fingers


    double Dutch


    a wet blanket


    an all-rounder


    a tell-tale


    a bighead


    a pain in the neck


    a dark horse




    a godsend


    a whiz kid




    a stickler




    a girl Friday


    a wallflower




    a snob


    a chip off the old block


    a lone wolf

    b   In English there are many comparisons such as:

    as light as a feather i.e. very light
    as quick as a flash i.e. very quick

    Here are some others. Can you fill in the missing words?


    as ..... as the hills


    as ..... as a doornail


    as ..... as a cucumber


    as ..... as a mule


    as ..... as a rake


    as .... as a dodo


    as ..... as a lord


    as ..... as a pancake


    as ..... as a sandboy


    as ..... as a hatter


    as ..... as a bat


    as ..... as pie


    as ..... as two short planks


    as ..... as a beetroot


    as ..... a picture


    as ..... as a post


    as ..... as nails


    as ..... as a daisy


    as ..... as mustard


    as ..... as a coot


    as ..... as a beaver


    as ..... as gold


    as ..... as a peacock


    as ..... as mud


    as ..... as dust


    as ..... as thieves


    as ..... as a church mouse

    30 Verb groups

    What is the difference in meaning between the sentences in each set?

    1. What does he do?
      What is he doing?

    2. When I saw him, he ran away.
      When I saw him, he was running away.

    3. Can 1 help you?
      May I help you?

    4. He has gone on holiday.
      He has been on holiday.

    5. She used to work here.
      She is used to working here.

    6. He asked Paul if he would go to the meeting.
      He asked Paul if he should go to the meeting.

    7. I remember asking him for the latest sales figures.
      I remembered to ask him for the latest sales figures

    8. He has worked here for ten years.
      He worked here for ten years.

    9. When we left the rain stopped.
      When we left the rain had stopped.

    10. He stopped to ask for his advice.
      He stopped asking for his advice.

    11. You must not increase the prices until July.
      You don't have to increase the prices until July.

    You have now completed all the exercises

    Diagnostic Test

    Time allowed for the test: 60 minutes.

    The test consists of three parts:

    I Vocabulary

    II Comprehension

    III Grammar

    There are a total of 105 marks for the test:

    35 for part 1
    20 for part II
    50 for part III

    The answers to the test can be viewed HERE

    The marks correspond to the following levels of ability:

    10 - 25 Lower intermediate
    26 - 40 Intermediate
    41 - 55 Upper intermediate
    55+ Advanced


    a  Complete each of the following sentences by inserting a suitable word. In some cases the first letter of the word is given: the word you insert must then begin with this letter.

    Example: The government intends to start a big campaign to warn people about the dangers of smoking.

    1. The Conservative candidate won - he managed to get two thousand . . . more than the Labour candidate.

    2. A person without a job is said to be u . . . .

    3. They said on the weather f . . . that there would be snow tomorrow.

    4. Going a . . . is another expression for going to a foreign country.

    5. To be p . . . means the same as to move up to a higher and usually better-paid job.

    6. Many car workers work on an a . . . - . . . . This is an essential feature of mass production.

    7. I tried to get him on the telephone, but the line was e . . . .

    8. What does he do for a l . . . ? He's a journalist.

    9. To protect their interests, workers have formed t . . . u . . . . These try to improve pay and conditions and sometimes tell their members to go on strike.

    10. Smoking is a very bad h . . . .

    11. At zebra crossings it is the p . . . and not the motorist who has priority.

    12. The monthly sum of money one receives in return for working is called one's s . . . .

    13. If you want to see the doctor, you will have to ring and ask for an a . . . .

    14. Let's keep our fingers . . . that everything goes according to plan.

    15. If you want to . . . a photograph indoors, you normally need flash bulbs.

    16. He works in the r . . . and development department of the company.

    17. They sold the product so cheaply that instead of making a profit they made a . . . .

    18. These shoes don't . . . me - they're at least one size too small.

    19. The . . . of Greater London had reached almost seven million by 2000.

    20. Before he went for the interview, he was asked to fill in an application f . . . .

    21. The car was badly d . . . in the accident.

    22. A . . . worker is, literally, one who works with his hands.

    23. Although we need more energy, there is a lot of opposition to plans to build new nuclear . . . . . . . (2 words)

    24. To r . . . a car is to make it go backwards.

    25. In Britain all men aged 65 or over have the right to an old-age . . . paid by the State.

    26. My telephone number is 46067 and the e . . . is 422.

    27. A report that is published a . . . is one that is published once a year.

    28. How much is the train f . . . from London to Manchester?

    29. Money which one puts in the bank to spend later is called one's s . . . .

    30. I can't make up my . . . whether to take the job or not.

    b Here are some pairs of sentences. Insert a suitable particle (adverb or preposition) in the second sentence of each pair so that it has the same meaning as the first sentence.

    Example: Mike descended the stairs. Mike went down the stairs.

    1. Why don't you ask him to speak louder? Why don't you ask him to speak . . . ?

    2. She arrived at six o'clock. She turned . . . at six o'clock.

    3. I'd agree with that. I'd go . . . with that.

    4. Because of the snow the football match has been postponed until next Tuesday. Because of the snow the football match has been put . . . until next Tuesday.

    5. He called our attention to the problems involved. He pointed . . . the problems involved.


    In the following passage a number of words have been removed and replaced by a number. For each number supply a word you think is suitable and write this word next to the corresponding number in the list at the end of the passage. Do not write in more than one word per number. In some cases the first letter of the missing word is given: the word you choose must then begin with this letter. The first part of the text has been left complete to help you.

    Women at work

    In the past few years, there has been a lot of discussion about equal rights and opportunities for women and, as a result of this, the traditional roles for men and women in society have become much more flexible in many parts of the world.
    Nevertheless, many women still feel that not enough has been done to end the discrimination against women at work. They point out that women are usually employed in lower positions than men, that they eam less, and that they do not have the same career prospects, especially if they are married. F . . . 1 . . . , they object to the fact . . . 2 . . . there are still far too . . . 3 . . . situations in life in which p. . . 4 . . . expect or prefer to find . . . 5 . . . man or woman doing a p . . . 6 . . . job, and that the jobs . . . 7 . . . a woman is expected are u . . . 8 . . . lower paid and less prestigious. . . . 9 . . . , for example, airline pilots are . . . 10 . . . often than not men, whereas . . . 11 . . . majority of the cabin staff . . . 12 . . . sure to be women. A n . . . 13 . . . is usually expected to be . . . 14 . . . woman, a surgeon on the . . . 15 . . . hand is more likely to . . . 16 . . . a man.
    Even if it . . . 17 . . . accepted that a job can . . . 18 . . . done equally well by a . . . 19 . . . or a woman, this does . . . 20 . . . mean an end to the discrimination. Think, for example, of a situation in which a man and woman of the same age and with the same qualifications apply for the same job. Do you think it is more likely that the man or the woman will be appointed?

    1. . . . . . . . . . .

    6. . . . . . . . . . .

    11.. . . . . . . . . .

    16.. . . . . . . . . .

    2. . . . . . . . . . .

    7.. . . . . . . . . .

    12. . . . . . . . . . .

    17.. . . . . . . . . .

    3.. . . . . . . . . . .

    8.. . . . . . . . . .

    13. . . . . . . . . . .

    18. . . . . . . . . . .

    4. . . . . . . . . . .

    9. . . . . . . . . . .

    14. . . . . . . . . . .

    19. . . . . . . . . . .

    5. . . . . . . . . . .

    10. . . . . . . . . . .

    15. . . . . . . . . . .

    20. . . . . . . . . . .


    a   Insert the correct preposition in each of the gaps in the following sentences.

    Example: He started learning English at the age of 67.

    1. There is a good film . . . television tonight.

    2. We are travelling . . . a speed of 120 mph.

    3. I heard that he died . . . cancer.

    4. My room is . . . the sixth floor.

    5. You have to be good . . . English to get a job like this.

    6. It's the biggest computer firm . . . he world.

    7. It will take us about twenty minutes to get there . . . foot.

    8. Last year I read 'Hamlet' . . . William Shakespeare.

    9. He's been engaged . . . her for ten years, but it's unlikely that he'll ever marry her.

    10. I'm sick . . . paying so much for petrol.

    b   Complete the following sentences by writing in the correct form of the verb in brackets. In some cases it may be necessary to put a preposition in front of the verb.

    Examples: He plans (leave) to leave on Wednesday. He discouraged (I/take) me from taking the job.

    1. We look forward (meet) you at the next trade fair.

    2. I'm glad that you reminded me (order) the part last week.

    3. I'm thinking (buy) a new car.

    4. My boss expects (I/work) very harct.

    5. Whenever Peter mentions marriage, Susan pretends (be) deaf.

    6. The garage attendant suggested (change) the oil.

    7. Do you mirid (I/join) you for lunch?

    8. He said that he wasn't interested (work) for our company.

    c   Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. Be careful with the word order if there is a question.

    Example: You (see) Did you see that film last week?

    1. If he (mention) it tomorrow, and I expect he will, you (have to) do your best to change the subject.

    2. If it (not be) for that long strike in the summer, we (make) a profit last year.

    3. He really needs a holiday. He (work) much too hard recently.

    4. Don't tell him what I said, unless he (ask) you.

    5. I (write) a letter when the light went out. I (finish) it the following day.

    6. They (build) that bridge for several months now, but they (not finish) it yet.

    7. There's no news of the expedition yet, but as soon as we (receive) some information, we (telephone) you.

    8. You (have got) a ticket for the big match on Saturday? No, I don't even know who (play).

    9. Mr King (leave) the company two years ago. If he (stay) just six months longer, he (become) the new Managing Director.

    10. We (have) Smith's report yet? No, although it's time he (send) it in.

    11. What would happen if you (not go) to work tomorrow?

    12. If he (have) time, he would certainly have told you.

    d   Rewrite the following four sentences, putting the adverbs given in the correct or most likely position.

    Example: Would you stop talking? kindly
    Would you kindly stop talking?

    1. I would not have told her the news. rather

    2. Be careful when you are crossing the road.always

    3. There is a demand for this kind of product. no longer

    4. I have seen a worse piece of work. rarely

    e   Rewrite the following sentences, putting them into the passive. The word(s) in italic must become the subject of the passive sentence.

    Example: Our secretary takes care of tbese enquiries.
    These enquiries are taken care of by our secretary.
    1. They are packing the goods at the moment.

    2. They made her leave the room.

    3. Have they delivered it yet?

    f   Put a, an or the - if necessary - in the gaps.

    1. Although I'm a foreigner, I speak and write . . . perfect English.

    2. He's . . . electrician by trade.

    3. One of the most famous streets in America is . . . Fifth Avenue in New York.

    4. Can you play . . . piano?

    5. I've never seen such . . . work in my life.

    6. I'll help you if you're in . . . hurry.

    g   Underline the correct word in brackets in each of the following sentences

    Example: Do you know when they first opened the (canal, channel) tunnel?

    1. What was the (cause, reason) of the accident?

    2. Our factory is (nearby, near) the railway Station.

    3. Mandy is a very (economic, economical) housewife.

    4. Make sure that you arrive (by, until) six o'clock.

    5. Her boss is away on a business (trip, travel).

    6. Be careful! The safety cover is (loose, lose).

    7. They haven't seen him (for, since) last week.

    Diagnostic Test - Answers

    There is one mark for each of the questions. One mistake in each sentence even a spelling mistake - means no marks!

    Part I: Vocabulary:

    a   1 votes; 2 unemployed; 3 forecast; 4 abroad; 5 promoted; 6 assembly-line; 7 engaged; 8 living; 9 trade(s) unions; 10 habit; 11 pedestrian; 12 salary; 13 appointment; 14 crossed; 15 take; 16 research; 17 loss; 18 fit; 19 population; 20 form;21 damaged; 22 manual; 23 power stations; 24 reverse; 25 pension; 26 extension; 27 annually; 28 fare; 29 savings; 30 mind.

    b   1 up; 2 up; 3 along; 4 off; 5 out.

    Part II: Comprehension:

    1 Furthermore; 2 that; 3 many; 4 people; 5 a; 6 particular; 7 where; 8 usually; 9 Thus; 10 more; 11 the; 12 are; 13 nurse; 14 a; 15 other; 16 be; 17 is; 18 be; 19 man; 20 not.

    Part III: Grammar:

    a  1 on; 2 at; 3 of; 4 on; 5 at; 6 in; 7 on; 8 by; 9 to; 10 of.
    b  1 to meeting; 2 to order; 3 of buying; 4 me to work; 5 to be; 6 changing; 7 me joining; 8 in working.
    c  1 mentions, will have to; 2 had not been, would have made; 3 has been working; 4 asks; 5 was writing, finished; 6 have been building; have not finished; 7 receive, will telephone; 8 Have you got, is playing; 9 left, had stayed, would have become; 10 Have we had, sent; 11 did not go; 12 had had.
    d  1 I would rather not have told her the news. 2 Always be careful when you are crossing the road. 3 There is no longer a demand for this kind of product. 4 I have rarely seen a worse piece of work.
    e  1 The goods are being packed at the moment.2 She was made to leave the room. 3 Has it been delivered yet?
    f  1 - ; 2 an; 3 - ; 4 the; 5 - ; 6 a.
    g  1 cause; 2 near; 3 economical; 4 by; 5 trip; 6 loose; 7 since

    Answers to the Exercises

    Note: Answers to exercises marked with an asterisk (*) are suggestions only. There may well be other possibilities which are also acceptable.

    Exercise 1:

      1 vacant; 2 Personnel; 3 form; 4 qualifications and experience;. a C.V. is a curriculum vitae; 5 marital; 6 contract; 7 apprentice; 8 chances of promotion; 9 manufacturing industry; 10 commuters; 11 unemployed; 12 incentives; 13 gross; 14 leaving the company; 15 piece-work; 16 retirement; 17 —

    Exercise 2:

    a (*):   place an order; submit an offer/a proposal/a cheque; grant a discount; settle an invoice/a debt/a complaint/an account; lodge a complaint; launch a product; remit a cheque; meet a delivery date; open an account; second a proposal; chair a meeting; quote prices; debit an account; negotiate prices/an agreement.

    b (*):   enquiry; acknowledgement; offer; order; confirmation; production; documents; packing; dispatch; delivery; invoice; payment.

    Exercise 3:

    a(*):   1 contract; 2 guard; 3 spanner; 4 tax; 5 Thanksgiving; 6 guinea; 7 honestly; 8 range; 9 piecework; 10 Inc.; 11 shot; 12 car; 13 import; 14 lathe; 15 spares; 16 meeting.

    b:   1 paid; 2 twelfth; 3 equipped; 4 cooler; 5 impossible; 6 developed; 7 potatoes; 8 receipt; 9 campaign; 10 apartment; 11 forty; 12 visible; 13 perishable; 14 alive; 15 translator; 16 height.

    Exercise 4:

      1 made; 2 done; 3 make; 4 making; 5 make; 6 do; 7 do; 8 make; 9 make; 10 do; 11 do; 12 make; 13 do; 14 done; 15 make; 16 made; 17 do; 18 make; 19 doing; 20 make; 21 make; 22 made; 23 make; 24 done; 25 made; 26 make; 27 doing; 28 does; 29 do; 30 do; 31 makes.

    Exercise 5:

    A:   1 persuade; 2 incentive; 3 reduce; 4 grant; 5 prompt; 6 bulk; 7 purchase.

    B:   enquiry; stock; submit; invoice; samples; cover; validity; binding; stipulate; subject.

    C:   enquiry; quotation; insurance; net; binding; subject; prior; firm; bids; invitation.

    D:   display; leaflet; space; advance; apply; dismantled.

    E:   wasted; gross; approximately; department; execute; campaign; mass media; massproduced.

    F:   stand; recent; impressed; demand; area; grateful; quotation; include; delivery; forward; hearing; faithfully.

    G:   catalogue; own; employ; rent; premises; spare; commission; dispatched; back; facilities.

    Exercise 6:

    1 rang, said, have checked, have not found, have had; 2 was, terminated, opened, have been selling; 3 have not paid, delivered, have settled; 4 have been, have been; 5 worked, retired, went, have already applied; 6 delivered, has broken down, has still not repaired, has lost; 7 have you ever tried, tried, found, have just completed; 8 have been trying, have told; 9 has had, did you see, have not seen; 10 have known, have ever had; 11 have forgotten; 12 have been working, has proved, expected; 13 has stopped; 14 have been spending, installed; 15 have made; 16 paid, have not paid, has been; 17 arrived, started, has finished; 18 has just told, have been, have had; 19 have changed, have been opposed, has been; 20 went, has just left.

    Exercise 7:

    1 plumber; 2 joiner; 3 tenant; 4 fitter; 5 consultant; 6 draughtsman; 7 landlord; 8 cashier; 9 electrician; 10 accountant / auditor.

    Exercise 8:

    1:   a the franchise; b the local businessman; c the franchisors; d the franchisor; e franchising.

    2:   a require; b the go-ahead; c hands over; d in excess of; e manual; f a household name.

    3:   la; 2c; 3b; 4b; 5c; 6a; 7c.

    4:   IF; 2T; 3F; 4F; 5F; 6F.

    Exercise 10:

    1 since; 2 for; 3 during; 4 by; 5 ago; 6 until; 7 yet; 8 for; 9 by; 10 since; 11 ago; 12 for, yet, by; 13 until; 15 by; 16 during; 17 ago, by; 18 since, until; 19 during; 20 for; 21 until; 22 by; 23 yet; 24 for, during; 25 ago.

    Exercise 12:

    1 leaps; 2 blue; 3 wedge; 4 shop; 5 price; 6 business; 7 value; 8 penny; 9 pot; 10 pocket; 11 wood; 12 business; 13 blessing; 14 subject; 15 bush; 16 cracked; 17 line; 18 angels; 19 pieces; 20 granted.

    Exercise 13:

    a:   was delivered; had been damaged; was made; to be dispatched; is enclosed; can be collected; has been informed; has been caused; have been taken; is not made.

    Explanation: The passive is more formal, less direct and often more polite. Thus, for example, the person you are speaking or writing to is less likely to object if you say: A mistake has heen made. than if addressed directly with the active sentence You have made a mistake. The passive is used if the agent (the doer of the action) is unknown, unimportant or if there is some reason for not mentioning his or her name. Contrary to what many textbooks say, most passive verb groups are used without the addition of a byphrase.

    b:   1 The factory was built in 1953- 2 You will be told when to go. 3 The form must be signed by the applicant. 4 My briefcase has been stolen. 5 The office is being decorated at the moment. 6 Has the invoice been paid yet?. 7 Everything was explained to me. 8 The goods have just been delivered. 9 25 people are employed at the new branch office. 10 He will be dismissed if he is late for work again. 11 Our new product is going to be displayed at the Exhibition in Houston. 12 Several complimentary tickets for the Exhibition have been enclosed. 13 Mr Ashford is authorized to act on behalf of the firm. 14 You can be assured that everything will be arranged in time. 15 He was asked a lot of questions at the end of his Speech.

    Exercise 14:

    1 fuse; 2 lose; 3 meat; 4 year; 5 lasted; 6 sew; 7 grey; 8 swear; 9 hinder; 10 breather; 11 clever; 12 worry; 13 shone; 14 tough; 15 bass.

    Exercise 15:

    Group 1 (*):   1 We are writing on behalf of our principals in New Zealand, who are interested in importing red telephone boxes from the United Kingdom. 2 As your firm has been recommended to us as a leading manufacturer of cuckoo clocks, we would be grateful to receive your catalogue and price list. 3 We were impressed by the selection of goods which were displayed on your stand at the Exhibition in Birmingham last month. 4 We saw your advertisement in the latest issue of the Trade Gazette, in which you offer video recorders at competitive prices. 5 We look forward to meeting your representative, and to receiving samples of your new ränge of bermuda shorts.

    Group 2 (*):   1 You will find enclosed our illustrated catalogue and details of discounts for large Orders and regulär purchases. 2 We are sorry that the goods you require are not in stock at the moment. 3 We are pleased to inform you that the goods are available for delivery on receipt of order. 4 We look forward to hearing from you soon, and will be pleased to supply any further information you require. 5 Thank you for your enquiry of 1Oth May, in which you asked for information about our new ränge of dolls.

    Exercise 16:

    1 repondez s'il vous plait (please reply); 2 cash on delivery; 3 please tum over; 4 value added tax; 5 cost, insurance, freight; 6 free on board; 7 free alongside ship; 8 extension; 9 brothers; 10 pounds; 11 incorporated; 12 enclosed; 13 id est (that is to say); 14 exempli gratia (for example); 15 regards; 16 as soon as possible; 17 approximately; 18 limited; 19 per procurationem (power of attorney); 20 stamped addressed envelope.

    Exercise 17:

    1 It has broken down. 2 Where did the fire break out? 3 Where were you brought up? 4 I do not go in for sport. 5 I would break off the engagement. 6 Production has been cut back. 7 A machine breakdown is holding up production. 8 It has been put off. 9 I should turn it down. 10 We have run out of raw materials. 11 I have set up my own firm. 12 Hold on. 13 It has gone off. 14 I would call it off. 15 They are called up. 16 It must be carried out. 17 It has been done away with. 18 Drop in sometime. 19 They have fallen out. 20 I shall look into it. 21 Fill it in. 22 They write them off. 23 Look it up. 24 Somebody has slipped up. 25 You can count on me. 26 There is not enough to go round. 27 My speech went down very well. 28 I will sort it out. 29 Will you back me up?

    Exercise 18:

    A:   purchase; advance; opportunity; agreement; deposit; instalments; legally; service; statement.

    B:   economy; services; suit; demand; range; gathers; campaigns; questionnaires; market; marketing.

    C:   economically; inventory; incurred; vital; deals; middlemen; requires.

    D:   establish; branch; appoint; abroad; sole; competitor; consignment; commission.

    E:   place; approval; requirements; prior; appointment.

    F:   enquiry; enclosed; current; quoting; attention; discounts; quantity; contact; further; sincerely.

    G:   supply; competitive; pressure; broad; facilities; escalators; located; trolley; checkout; branches; bulk.

    Exercise 19:

    1 brought; 2 spilt; 3 led; 4 put; 5 hit; 6 given; 7 won; 8 bent; 9 took; 10 flew; 11 read; 12 lost; 13 met; 14 threw; 15 bought; 16 wound; 17 smelt; 18 rose; 19 drove.

    Exercise 20:

    1 Chief Accountant; 2 Alan Chambers.

    Exercise 21:

    1 apprentice; 2 rush; 3 shop floor; 4 revolutions; 5 screwdriver; 6 safety pins; 7 overtime; 8 schedule; 9 bench; 10 conveyor beit; 11 specifications; 12 Computer: Computer Aided Design, Computer Aided Manufacturing, Computer Integrated Manufacturing, Computer Numerically Controlled; 13 fitter; 14 carrying costs (inventory costs); 15 checked; 16 finished; 17 shop Steward; 18 closed shop; 19 slide rule.

    Exercise 22:

    A:   1 employee; 2 wage; 3 salary; 4 self-employed; 5 accountant; 6 fee; 7 sealed; 8 save; 9 premises.

    B:   employee; salary; slip; items; gross; deductions; insurance; contributions; net; account.

    C:   produce; profit; monetary; performance; benefits; fringe; executives; advantages.

    D:   1 opportunity; 2 fellow workers; 3 scarcely; 4 shoddy; 5 incentive; 6 fringe benefits; 7 facilities.

    E:   1 complain; 2 Labour; 3 doubts; 4 pension; 5 shop-floor; 6 cost of living.

    F:   doubt, collar, tellers, turn, retail, artificial, tasks, care, service, sign

    Exercise 23: (*)

    1 How long has Mr. Ashford worked here? 2 Where does he work? 3 Where did he use to work? 4 What do they make? 5 Why did he leave? 6 What does his wife look like? 7 Where do they live? 8 Do they live in a flat? 9 How often do you meet him? 10 What do you do? 11 How much do you earn? 12 What did you study? 13 Why did you study those subjects? 14 Why did you change your mind? 15 What is the Chairman's name? 16 What is he like? 17 Who makes all the important decisions? 18 Where is his office? 19 Can I speak to him? 20 What is she called? 21 Where is the telephone? 22 When do you finish work? 23 What time is it? 24 How long will it take me? 25 Why don't you come with me? 26 What have you got to do? 27 Where are they going to? 28 Are they in French? 29 Where did you leam English? 30 Have you (got) a light, please?

    Exercise 24:

    Group 1 (*):   1 spare parts; 2 filing cabinet; 3 data processing; 4 fringe benefits; 5 trade union; 6 profit margin; 7 joint venture; 8 third-party cover; 9 customs' clearance; 10 insurance premium; 11 crossed cheque; 12 board meeting; 13 balance sheet; 14 instruction manual; 15 conveyor beit.

    Group 2 (*):   1 after-sales Service; 2 delivery bay; 3 petty cash; 4 deposit account; 5 insurance broker; 6 market research; 7 bonded warehouse; 8 cost breakdown; 9 trade fair; 10 sight draft; 11 assembly line; 12 sole agent; 13 price list; 14 work study; 15 building contractor.

    Exercise 26:

    1: a (2); b (6); c (4); d (3); e (5); f (1).

    2: (3); 3: (1); 4: (1); 5: (4).

    Exercise 27:

    1 Peter has; 2 so; 3 do I; 4 would I; 5 is; 6 matter; 7 How; 8 so; 9 some; 10 does; 11 I think so; 12 So does; 13 it is; 14 Neither would I; 15 Me too; 16 we had; 17 I'm afraid not; 18 I expect so; 19 I don't think so; 20 Please yourself.

    Excerise 28:

    1 at; 2 in; 3 on; 4 on ; 5 in; 6 for; 7 at; 8 for; 9 to; 10 to; 11 at; 12 in; 13 on; 14 at; 15 on; 16 with; 17 on; 18 on; 19 out; 20 to; 21 at; 22 at; 23 in; 24 on; 25 at.

    Exercise 29:

    b: 1 old; 2 stubborn; 3 drunk; 4 mad; 5 thick; 6 deaf; 7 keen; 8 good; 9 dry; 10 dead; 11 thin; 12 flat; 13 blind; 14 red; 15 hard; 16 bald; 17 proud; 18 thick; 19 cool; 20 dead; 21 happy; 22 easy; 23 pretty; 24 fresh.

    Exercise 30:

    1 What is his job? What is he doing at this moment. 2 I saw him (he saw me) and then he ran away. While he was running away, he was seen by me. 3 The second sentence is possibly more polite and would be used e.g. in a shop. 4 He is still on holiday. He has gone on holiday and come back. 5 She worked here but does not now. She knows what it is like to work here and is still working here. 6 Paul, are you going to the meeting? Paul, should I go to the meeting? 7 I know that I asked him for the figures. I did not forget to ask him for the figures. 8 He is still working here. He doesn't work here any more. 9 As we left it stopped raining. It was not raining when we left. 10 He stopped what he was doing and asked him for his advice. He did not ask him for his advice any longer. 11 You are not allowed to increase the prices. You do not need to increase the prices.

    This is a fully-functional trial version but it contains only the first 30 exercises. If you find the material useful, please purchase the Business English Grammar and Vocabulary EBook. It is very reasonably priced (US$ 4.99) and gives you unrestricted access to all of the more than 100 exercises and tests.


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